Below are the endnotes from The Middle Class Market Boom by María-Eugenia Boza (Fall 2012 AQ).
1. Banerjee, A and Esther Duflo (2008), “What is Middle Class about the Middle Classes around the World?”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 2, Spring 2009, pp. 3-28.
2. OECD (2011), Latin American Economic Outlook 2011: How Middle Class is Latin America?, OECD Publishing.
3. This calculation uses data from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators. The estimate could be biased upwards because the World Bank uses its $2/day poverty line to calculate poverty in the region, but the result is similar if national poverty lines are considered. For example, 21.4 percent of Brazil’s population lives under the national poverty line, making 58.6 percent of it neither poor- middle- nor upper class—therefore below the “60-to-70-percent” threshold cited earlier.
4. For a detailed discussion on the concept and mesaure of brand equity see a) Keller, K (1993), Conceptualizing, Measuring and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity, Journal of Marketing, Vol.57, January 1993, pp.1-22; and b) Aaker, David (1992), “The Value of Brand Equity”, Journal of Business Strategy, Vol. 13, Issue 4, pp.27 – 32
5. For a full discussion on the cultural embeddedness of consumption practices see Shove, Elizabeth (2003), Comfort, Cleanliness + Convenience: The Social Organization of Normality, Berg Publishers.