Politics, Business & Culture in the Americas

Endnotes: [i]Increasing Women’s Representation in Politics[/i]

Below are the endnotes from Increasing Women’s Representation in Politics by Magda Hinojosa (Summer 2012 AQ).

1. The mean for the percentage of women in lower or single chambers of legislatures is 20.5, with a standard deviation of 9.3. In all but 2 of these countries, in-country differences were more substantial than differences across countries. This analysis included all political parties with representation in the lower or single chamber of the legislature. In a separate analysis, I included only the six largest parties in the country. By excluding many small parties from the analysis, I found that in 5 of the 18 countries, the standard deviation was smaller than 9.3, indicating that cross-country differences were more significant in nearly one-third of countries. The exclusion of the smaller parties made a tremendous difference in standard deviations in some cases. For example, in the Argentine case, although the mean percentage of legislators who were women increased only slightly (from 40.7 percent when including all parties in the legislative body to 43.2 percent when looking at only the six largest parties in the Chamber of Deputies), the change in standard deviation was striking: from 37.1 to 16 when using only the six largest parties. In the Bolivian case, however, there was no change since only five parties or coalitions had legislative representation. Note that 12 of the 18 countries in this analysis use gender quotas for the national legislature. I suspect that if this analysis had been done in 1995, before the mass adoption of gender quotas, that we would observe even more significant variations within countries than we see here.

2. Sample, Kristen, “No hay mujeres: Latin America Women and gender equality.” Open Democracy, 2009. http://www.opendemocracy.net/article/idea/no-hay-mujeres-latin-america-women-and-gender-equality Last accessed July 23, 2012

3. Casas-Zamora, Kevin. Paying for Democracy: Political Finance and State Funding for Parties. Colchester, U.K.: European Consortium for Political Research Press, 2005.

4. Valdés, Teresa, and Enrique Gomáriz. Mujeres latinoamericanas en cifras: Tomo comparativo. Santiago, Chile: Instituto de la Mujer de España and FLACSO, 1995.

5. Franceschet, Susan. Women and Politics in Chile. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2005.

6. Sidhu, Gretchen Luchsinger, and Ruth Meena. “Electoral Financing to Advance Women’s Political Participation: A Guide for UNDP Support.” Primers in Gender and Democratic Governance #3. New York: United Nations Development Programme, 2007. http://www.undp.org.ir/gender/electoral%20financing-EN-EBOOK.pdf Last accessed July 23, 2012.

7. Roza, Vivian. Gatekeepers to Power: Party-Level Influences on Women’s Political Participation in Latin America. Ph.D. diss., Georgetown University, 2010a

8. Leijenaar, Monique. “A Battle for Power: Selecting Candidates in the Netherlands.” In Gender and Party Politics, edited by Joni Lovenduski and Pippa Norris, 205–230. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1993.

9. Erickson, Lynda. “Making Her Way In: Women, Parties and Candidacies in Canada.” In Gender and Party Politics, edited by Joni Lovenduski and Pippa Norris, 60–85. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1993.

10. Silber, Irina Carlota, and Jocelyn Viterna. “Women in El Salvador: Continuing the Struggle.” In Women and Politics around the World: A Comparative History and Survey, edited by Joyce Gelb and Marian Lief Palley, 328–351. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 2009.

11. United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women. “General Programme Information: Sri Lanka.” Fund for Gender Equality, http://www.unwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/CAT-Women-and-Media-Collective-Sri-Lanka-Profile-July-2011.pdf Last accessed July 23, 2012.

12. The White House Project. http://www.thewhitehouseproject.org/join/invite/ Last accessed July 23, 2012.

13. Llanos, Beatriz, and Kristen Sample. Del dicho al hecho: Manual de buenas prácticas para la participación de mujeres en los partidos políticos latinoamericanos. Stockholm: International IDEA. 2008.

14. National Democratic Institute. “Latin America and the Caribbean Past Programs.” http://www.ndi.org/past_programs Last accessed July 23, 2012.

15. Adrianzén, Alberto, Juan Rial, and Rafael Roncagliolo. Países andinos: Los políticos. Lima: International IDEA, 2008.

16. Data on suffrage, International IDEA 30 Years of Democracy, p. 14; Data on women mayors and council members, p. 25; Data on women ministers, p. 19; Data on women’s representation in legislatures from http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm accessed June 28, 2010. Dominican Republic data was obtained from http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm and accessed on October 15, 2010. Data on Colombia was unavailable from IPU between June and October 2010 was ultimately obtained from http://www.congresovisible.org/congresistas/ accessed October 15, 2010.

17. 2010 data on women’s representation in legislatures from http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm accessed on 06.28.10 and then again later for missing data on Colombia and Dominican Republic. Data for 2000 is also available from the IPU’s website. All data for 1970, 1980, and 1990 was assembled by the author using data found in the Inter-Parliamentary Union’s publication Women in Parliaments, 1945-1990. Please note that many of these countries were not continuously democratic between 1970 and 2010; consequently, the legislature may have been suspended during the year for which data is provided. Therefore, data in each of these columns represents the election of that year or of the closest previous election. *The 1980 data for Nicaragua reflects the composition of the Council of State, whose members were appointed.

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