Politics, Business & Culture in the Americas

Endnotes: Harsher Prison Sentences in Latin America Don’t Curb Crime

Below are the endnotes from “Harsher Prison Sentences in Latin America Don’t Curb Crime” by Jorge Kawas (Winter 2015 AQ.)

1 “Global Study on Homicide 2013,” United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, www.unodc.org/documents/gsh/pdfs/2014_GLOBAL_HOMICIDE_BOOK_web.pdf

2 “Crime and Corruption Top Problems in Emerging and Developing Countries,” Pew Research Global Attitudes Project, November 6, 2014, www.pewglobal.org/2014/11/06/crime-and-corruption-top-problems-in-emerging-and-developing-countries

3 Mark Kleiman, When Brute Force Fails (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2010), 88.

4 Katell Abiven, “Latin America’s Prisons are a Violent Nightmare and Getting Worse,” Business Insider, September 2, 2014, www.businessinsider.com/latin-americas-prisons-are-a-violent-nightmare-and-getting-worse-2014-9

5 “Report on the Human Rights of Persons Deprived of Liberty in the Americas,” Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, December 2011, www.oas.org/en/iachr/pdl/docs/pdf/PPL2011eng.pdf

6 “Presumption of Guilt: The Global Overuse of Pretrial Detention,” Open Society Justice Initiative, 2014, 30, www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/presumption-guilt-09032014.pdf

7 U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, What Are Offender-Based Policing Strategies? www.bja.gov/evaluation/program-law-enforcement/offender1.htm

8 “History of Mandatory Minimum Penalties and Statutory Relief Mechanisms”, Report to the Congress: Mandatory Minimum Penalties in the Federal Criminal Justice System (October 11, 2011): http://www.ussc.gov/news/congressional-testimony-and-reports/mandatory-minimum-penalties/report-congress-mandatory-minimum-penalties-federal-criminal-justice-system

9 Peter J. Messitte,“Plea Bargaining in Various Criminal Justice Systems,” (presented at the 11th Annual Conference on Legal and Policy Issues in the Americas, Montevideo, Uruguay, May 2010), www.law.ufl.edu/_pdf/academics/centers/cgr/11th_conference/Peter_Messitte_Plea_Bargaining.pdf

10 Luciana Boiteux, “Drugs and Prisons: The repression of drugs and the increase of the Brazilian penitentiary population,” in Systems Overload: Drug Laws and Prisons in Latin America, eds. Pien Metaal and Coletta Youngers, Washington Office on Latin America, 36, www.wola.org/sites/default/files/downloadable/Drug%20Policy/2011/TNIWOLA-Systems_Overload-def.pdf   

11 Joseph Bateman, “Brazil Poised to Pass Harsh, Rights-Violating Drug Law,” Washington Office on Latin America, May 29, 2013, www.wola.org/commentary/brazil_poised_to_pass_harsh_rights_violating_drug_law

12 “World Report 2013: Brazil,” Human Rights Watch, www.hrw.org/world-report/2013 

13 “World Prison Brief: Brazil,” International Centre for Prison Studies, www.prisonstudies.org/country/brazil

14 “Systems Overload: Drug Laws and Prisons in Latin America” Transnational Institute/Washington Office on Latin America Drug Law Reform Project, 2009, www.wola.org/publications/systems_overload_drug_laws_and_prisons_in_latin_america_0 (Accessed November 25, 2014), 36.

15 “Global Study on Homicide 2013”, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 24. http://www.unodc.org/documents/gsh/pdfs/2014_GLOBAL_HOMICIDE_BOOK_web.pdf

16 “Prisons: The non-debate of the 2014 elections”, Conectas Human Rights, September 26, 2014, www.conectas.org/en/actions/justice/news/25423-prisons-the-non-debate-of-the-2014-elections

17 Human Development Report for Latin America 2013-2014, “Citizen Security with a Human Face: Evidence and Proposals for Latin America,” United Nations Development Programme, 11, www.latinamerica.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/hdr/human-development-report-for-latin-america-2013-2014.html

18 “Prison Systems – Prison occupancy rate,” OAS Observatory on Citizen Security – Data Repository, www.oas.org/dsp/Observatorio/database/indicatorsdetails.aspx?lang=en&indicator=53

19 “Chile: Overview of drug laws and legislative trends,” Transnational Institute Drug Law Reform Project, www.druglawreform.info/en/country-information/latin-america/chile/item/202-chile

20 “Multilateral Evaluation System (MEM): Chile, Narrative Document – Sixth Evaluation Round”, Organization of American States, Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission, 24.

21 Javiera Blanco Suárez, “Medidas alternativas a la reclusión: Freno a la delincuencia,”Derecho Penal, April 4, 2011, www.pazciudadana.cl/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/2011-04-04_Medidas-alternativas-a-la-reclusi%C3%83%C2%B3n-freno-a-la-delincuencia.pdf

22 “La Cárcel en México: ¿Para qué?” México Evalúa, August 2013, 19, www.mexicoevalua.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/MEX-EVA_INDX-CARCEL-MEXICO-VF.pdf

23 “World Prison Brief: Mexico,” International Centre for Prison Studies, www.prisonstudies.org/country/mexico

24 Paulina Sánchez Román and Carlos de la Rosa, “Código Nacional de Procedimientos Penales: necesario pero insuficiente,” Animal Político, March 11, 2014, www.animalpolitico.com/blogueros-tanque-pensante/2014/03/11/codigo-nacional-de-procedimientos-penales-necesario-pero-insuficiente/

Sign up for our free newsletter